Assay Method Information

Assay Name:  TGF-beta 1 Assay
Description:  Compound Screening: Each compound was dissolved in DMSO as a 10 mM stock and used to prepare compound source plates. Serial dilution (1:2, 11-point dose-response curves from 10 μM to 1.87 nM) and compound transfer was performed using the ECHO 550 (Labcyte, Sunnyvale, Calif.) into 384-well clear bottom assay plates (Greiner Bio-One) with appropriate DMSO backfill for a final DMSO concentration of 0.1%. LL29 cells were plated at 1,500 cells/well in 80 μl/well F12 medium supplemented with 1% Fetal Bovine Serum. One hour after addition of the cells, TGF-β1 (Peprotech; 20 ng/mL) was added to the plates to induce fibrosis (ref. 1 and 2 above). Wells treated with TGF-β1 and containing DMSO were used as controls. Cells were incubated at 37 C. and 5% CO2 for 4 days. Following incubation for 4 days, SYTOX green nucleic acid stain (Life Technologies [Thermo Fisher Scientific]) was added to the wells at a final concentration of 1 uM and incubated at room temperature for 30 min. Cells were then fixed using 4% formaldehyde (Electron Microscopy Sciences), washed 3 times with PBS followed by blocking and permeabilization using 3% Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA; Sigma) and 0.3% Triton X-100 (Sigma) in PBS. Cells were then stained with antibody specific to α-smooth muscle actin (aSMA; Abcam) (ref. 1 and 2 above) in 3% Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA; Sigma) and 0.3% Triton X-100 (Sigma) in PBS, and incubated overnight at 4 C. Cells were then washed 3 times with PBS, followed by incubation with Alexa Flor-647 conjugated secondary antibody (Life Technologies [Thermo Fisher Scientific]) and DAPI at room temperature for 1 hour. Cells were then washed 3 times with PBS and plates were sealed for imaging. αSMA staining was imaged by excitation at 630 nm and emission at 665 nm and quantified using the Compartmental Analysis program on the CellInsight CX5 (Thermo Scientific). Dead or apoptotic cells were excluded from analysis based on positive SYTOX green staining. % of total cells positive for αSMA were counted in each well and normalized to the average of 11 wells treated with TGF-β1 on the same plate using Dotmatics' Studies Software. The normalized averages (fold change over untreated) of 3 replicate wells for each compound concentration were used to create dose-responses curves and EC50 values were calculated using non-linear regression curve fit in the Dotmatics' Studies Software.
Affinity data for this assay
 

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